日本語動詞の活用の種類|日本語動詞を変化させる

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Japanese verbs mostly fall into three conjugation categories, besides a small number of irregular verbs. These three categories are called ichidan verbs, godan verbs, and suru verbs.

Ichidan Verbs

Ichidan (一段いちだん) verbs, also known as -ru verbs, always end in either -iru or -eru. The final る drops in many conjugations.

Models:

  • べる
    The final る drops in the many conjugations, and the potential and passive are identical. There are two alternative forms for the positive plain imperative: べよ is more common in writing, and べろ is colloquial.

Godan Verbs

Godan (五段ごだん) verbs, also known as -u verbs, can end in any of the following letters: う・く・ぐ・す・つ・ぬ・ぶ・む・る. These verbs have different sound changes in the past tense and -te form depending on their final letter, and they are grouped according to this into different verb models for each possible final letter.

Models:


  • In past and -te forms the final う (u) becomes って, った, e.g. って, った.

  • In past and -te forms the final く becomes いて, いた, e.g. いて, いた .
  • およ
    In past and -te forms the final ぐ becomes いで, いだ, e.g. およいで, およいだ.

  • In past and -te forms the final す becomes して, した, e.g. して, した.

  • In past and -te forms the final つ becomes って, った, e.g. って, った

  • In past and -te forms the final ぬ becomes んで, んだ, e.g. んで, んだ. This model is rare; the only word in common use in this model is “die”.

  • In past and -te forms the final ぶ becomes んで, んだ, e.g. んで, んだ.

  • In past and -te forms the final む becomes んで, んだ, e.g. んで, んだ.
  • はい
    In past and -te forms the final る becomes って, った, e.g. はいって, はいった.

Suru Verbs

Suru (する) verbs end in the auxiliary verb する “do”, often formed by adding する after a noun to turn it into a verb, such as べんきょう “study (noun)”, べんきょうする “study (verb)”.

Models:

  • する
    This model includes the verb する itself as well as most verbs formed with the auxiliary する. It conjugates differently than ichidan and godan verbs, with forms like negative しない, past した, causative させる and passive される. It is replaced with the verb できる “to be able to” in potential forms.
  • あいする
    This model is used for most verbs consisting of a single kanji character plus the auxiliary する. Its conjugation differs from the model する in potential forms, where it ends with conjugations of the suffix 〜せる instead of できる.
  • せっする
    This model is used for verbs consisting of a single kanji character plus the auxiliary する when the kanji’s reading ends in small っ. Its conjugation differs slightly from the model あいする in potential, passive, and causative forms.
  • きんずる
    These verbs are alternates of regular ichidan verbs ending in じる, e.g. きんずる alternates with きんじる. These conjugate like their alternates except in the present plain and -eba conditional forms.

Irregular Verbs

There are a handful of verbs in Japanese with irregular conjugations that do not fit into the previous categories.

Models:


  • The copula だ “be, is” has an irregular conjugation that is different than most Japanese verbs. In some conjugations there are alternate forms with では (more formal) and じゃ (more colloquial), e.g. in present negative ではない alternates with じゃない “is not”.
  • ある
    The verb ある “exist, have, be” becomes ない in the negative present, and similarly in other negative conjugations.

  • This is an alternate spelling of the verb ある, and it conjugates in the same manner. In negative conjugations it may be written with the kanji . This spelling emphasizes the possessive meaning of the verb (“have”), while the spelling emphasizes the verb’s meaning of existence (“be located, exist”).

  • This is an alternate spelling of the verb ある, and it conjugates in the same manner. In negative conjugations it may be written with the kanji . This spelling emphasizes the verb’s meaning of existence (“be located, exist”), while the spelling emphasizes the possessive meaning of the verb (“have”).

  • The verb “come” generally conjugates like an ichidan verb, but its kanji has a different pronunciation in different conjugations, e.g. , られる. It also has the irregular imperative form .

  • The verb “go” conjugates similarly to the godan model , except that its ending く becomes っ in -te form and past tense, e.g. って, った.
  • くれる
    The verb くれる “give, do for someone” conjugates like other ichidan verbs except for its irregular imperative form くれ.
  • なさる
    A few honorific verbs like なさる have this irregular conjugation model. They conjugate similarly to godan verbs ending in る, except that in polite forms and the positive imperative the る becomes い (e.g. なさいます).

  • The two verbs and are slightly irregular godan verbs. They conjugate similarly to the model containing other verbs ending in う, but in past and -te forms the う stays unchanged, e.g. うて, うた.

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